Why Cite Data?
In general, citations (i.e., references) give credit to others for their work and ideas and allow readers to track down the original work if they choose. Citing data has not always been standard practice, especially if it is data you have collected yourself, but as data becomes more and more widely shared, proper attribution is increasingly important. Citing datasets helps them become part of the scholarly record and gives proper credit to the creator of the dataset. It also allows researchers to look at the underlying data supporting your research to build upon your research or attempt to reproduce your results. So don't forget to keep track our where you're getting your data from (as you gather it) and cite it!
Before using a data source in your research, you will need to check if there are any use restrictions. While data itself cannot be copyrighted, any product derived from that data can. This can apply to datasets as a whole, as well as charts and graphs created by online tools. There may also be privacy concerns related to the data itself, which would limit the ways the data can be used and shared. Users should always read the terms and conditions for each data source, especially if they intend to publish their research.
For more information and if you have any questions about copyright, contact the Scholarly Communications and Copyright Office.
How to Cite Data?
Check out these helpful links on citing data:
- Citing Data (ICPSR, 2020)
- How to Cite Data (Hailey Mooney, Michigan State University) (Includes APA, MLA, Chicago styles)
- Bibliographic citations for data files. Ruus, Laine and Anna Bombak. Ed. by Alberta Auringer Wood. 1996
- How to cite Statistics Canada products (Statistics Canada; 12-591-X)
- A brief citation guide for internet sources in history and the humanities. (Melvin E. Page for H-Net, Humanities & Social Sciences OnLine)
- Suggested citation styles for our Internet information. (U.S. Census Bureau, 2001/02/02)
- Citation rules for machine-readable data in Canadian historical journals (Igartua, José E., 1993)
- Citing data and statistics files in computer-readable form: a quick overview (Ruus, Laine 2004, Data Librarian. Emeritus, University of Toronto)
Citing other kinds of material:
- Guide to citing maps and atlases. (McMaster University Libraries. Lloyd Reeds Map Collection)
- ACMLA recommended best practices in citation of cartographic materials. (Association of Canadian Map Libraries and Archives (ACMLA))
- Citing government publications: detailed guide. (University of Western Ontario. D.B. Weldon Library)